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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 3, 2016

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An audit of the results of a triplet metronomic chemotherapy regimen incorporating a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancers patients
Vijay M Patil, Santam Chakraborty, TK Jithin, TP Sajith Babu, Satheesh Babu, Shiva Kumar, MS Biji, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Satheesan Balasubramanian
April-June 2016, 5(2):48-51
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181624  PMID:27275445
Background: Addition of erlotinib to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) may lead to further improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to study the PFS with MCT + erlotinib combination in our setting. Methods: A single-arm prospective observational study conducted at Malabar Cancer Center. Patients warranting palliative chemotherapy for head and neck cancers, having adequate organ function, not-affording cetuximab and not willing for intravenous chemotherapy were included in this study. Oral methotrexate (15 mg/m 2 /week), oral celecoxib (200 mg twice daily), and erlotinib (150 mg once daily) were administered till the progression of the disease or till intolerable side-effects. Patients underwent toxicity (CTCAE version 4.02) and response (RECIST version 1.1) assessment every 30 days. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16 (IBM, New York, USA). Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier analysis have been performed. Results: A total of 15 patients received MCT. The median age of these patients was 65 years (range: 48-80). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status was 0-1 in seven patients (46.7%), while it was 2 in eight patients (53.3%). The primary sites of tumor were predominantly oral cavity, 11 (73.4%). Prior to MCT, treatment with palliative radiation therapy was given in 11 patients and curative treatment in two patients. The best response post-MCT was complete remission in two patients, partial remission in seven patients, stable disease in four patients, and progressive disease in two patients. The median estimated PFS was 148 days (95% confidence interval 95.47-200.52 days). For a median follow-up of 181 days, there were only three deaths. Grade 3-4 toxicity was seen in six patients (40%). Dose reduction was required in four patients (26.7%). Conclusion: The addition of erlotinib to an MCT schedule of methotrexate and celecoxib resulted in a promising PFS and should be tested in future studies.
  6 1,711 313
Long term results of comparison of concurrent low-dose daily cisplatin versus the standard weekly cisplatin with six fractions per week radiotherapy in locally advanced head neck cancer
Pramod Kumar Gupta, Punita Lal, Ranjeet Bajpai, Anshu Goel, Rajan Yadav, Mranalini Verma, Shaleen Kumar
April-June 2016, 5(2):80-84
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181647  PMID:27275456
Aim and Objective: Weekly administration of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [CDDP]) appears more feasible and substantially more popular than the 3 weekly schedules due to better compliance. Different concurrent cisplatin schedules have been attempted including a daily schedule. We did a comparison of two consecutive single arm studies, i.e., use of weekly cisplatin versus daily cisplatin when used with concurrently with a moderately accelerated radiotherapy (RT) schedule. Patients and Methods: Two prospective feasibility, safety and efficacy studies were carried out consecutively within the department. The weekly CDDP study was done from August 2003 to August 2005 and daily CDDP study was conducted from November 2005 to June 2007. Both studies included locally advanced stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region with RT dose of 70 Gy. Concurrent single-agent cisplatin was administered weekly (35 mg/m 2) in the first and daily (6 mg/m 2) in the second study. Results: Weekly cisplatin study had 68 and daily CDDP study had 52 patients. The median follow-up in the two studies was 93 and 63 months, respectively. Compliance in the two studies was comparable. Acute Grade III/IV mucositis and dysphagia were significantly higher in weekly cisplatin study. Late Grade II/III toxicities such as xerostomia, dysphagia, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity were similar. The 5 years locoregional control was 18% and 25% and 5 years overall survival rate was 32% and 31% in weekly and daily cisplatin studies, respectively. Conclusions: Modest acceleration along with either "weekly" or "daily" cisplatin, whichever is possible in one's setup, is do-able, provided due attention is paid to patient selection and supportive care.
  4 1,554 292
Outcome of operable oral cavity cancer and impact of maintenance metronomic chemotherapy: A retrospective study from rural India
Avinash Pandey, A Desai, V Ostwal, V Patil, A Kulkarni, R Kulkarni, N Patil, D Chaukar, K Prabhash, Shripad D Banavali
April-June 2016, 5(2):52-55
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181625  PMID:27275446
Background: Oral cavity cancer is the most common cancer among rural India. There is a paucity of data for outcomes of operable oral cavity cancer from rural India. Use of maintenance metronomic may delay or avoid relapse. Aim: To evaluate outcomes of operable oral cavity carcinoma and evaluate impact of maintenance metronomic chemotherapy. Objectives: To evaluate disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and factors affecting the outcome in operable oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer registered between May 2008 and May 2014 were retrieved. Only those patients with operable oral cavity cancer and upfront definitive surgery were included in the study. Demographic profile, stage, tobacco consumption, adjuvant therapy, and pattern of failure were collected. Kaplan-Meir survival analysis was used to determine DFS and OS. Log-rank test was used to evaluate factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up is 24 months. Out of 335 patients, 225 (67%) had advanced operable cancer with 42/225 (18%) and 183/225 (82%) as Stages III and IVA, respectively. Buccal mucosa was the most common subsite (178/335, 53%) followed by tongue (63/335, 19%). Ninety-two percent patients were addicted to smokeless tobacco, whereas 27% were smokers. Median DFS is 13 months with 2 years relative DFS 32%. Median OS is 30 months, with 2 years OS of 54%. Metronomic adjuvant oral chemotherapy was given in 130/225 (58%); Stage III and IVA patients with median of 14 months (3-18 months). Use of metronomic chemotherapy improved DFS (8 vs. 14 months, P = 0.22) and OS (14 vs. 26 months, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Oral cavity cancer is a major health care problem in rural India. Presentation at advanced stage leads to suboptimal outcomes. Benefit of metronomic maintenance chemotherapy in locally advanced oral cavity needs to be further evaluated prospectively.
  4 2,349 345
Metronomic therapy with oral 6-mercaptopurine in elderly acute myeloid leukemia: A prospective pilot study
Akhil Kapoor, Surender Kumar Beniwal, Ashok Kalwar, Mukesh Kumar Singhal, Raj Kumar Nirban, Harvindra Singh Kumar
April-June 2016, 5(2):70-72
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181644  PMID:27275453
Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in elderly patients differs biologically from that in younger patients and is known to have unfavorable chromosomal rearrangements, higher resistance, and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. In such circumstances, instead of giving full-blown chemotherapy, palliative metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) could be a treatment option. Patients and Methods: We performed a prospective pilot study of old AML patients (age >60 years) not amenable to curative treatment. Thirty-two patients were enrolled into the study and were treated with daily oral 6-mercaptopurine 75 mg/m 2 . The following inclusion criteria were used: age >60 years, nonpromyelocytic AML, the absence of uncontrolled comorbidities, and patient not amenable to curative treatment. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to calculate the hazards ratio of significant factors. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (range: 61-86 years) with male: female ratio of 2.5:1. About 59.4% of patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 while rest had the status of 3. The median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-7.6). Males had median OS of 7 months (95% CI: 5.4-8.6) versus females with OS of 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.4; P = 0.008). There was no survival difference on the basis of baseline hemoglobin or French-American-British class. There were no Grade 4 toxicities and no episode of febrile neutropenia. Conclusions: MCT with oral 6-mercaptopurine is an attractive treatment option in elderly AML patients who are not amenable to curative therapy with minimal toxicities.
  3 1,304 176
Metronomic palliative chemotherapy in maxillary sinus tumor
Vijay M Patil, Vanita Noronh, Amit Joshi, Ashay Karpe, Vikas Talreja, Arun Chandrasekharan, Sachin Dhumal, Kumar Prabhash
April-June 2016, 5(2):56-58
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181626  PMID:27275447
Background: Metronomic chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate and celecoxib recently has shown promising results in multiple studies in head and neck cancers. However, these studies have not included patients with maxillary sinus primaries. Hence, the role of palliative metronomic chemotherapy in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma that is not amenable to radical therapy is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of carcinoma maxillary sinus patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between August 2011 and August 2014. The demographic details, symptomatology, previous treatment details, indication for palliative chemotherapy, response to therapy, and overall survival (OS) details were extracted. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics have been performed. Survival analysis was done by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Five patients had received metronomic chemotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range 37-64 years). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months were 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. The estimated median OS was 126 days (95% confidence interval 0-299.9 days). The estimated median survival in patients with an event-free period after the last therapy of <6 months was 45 days, whereas it was 409 days in patients with an event-free period postlast therapy above 6 months (P = 0.063). Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy in carcinoma maxillary sinus holds promise. It has activity similar to that seen in head and neck cancers and needs to be evaluated further in a larger cohort of patients.
  3 1,494 222
Weekly paclitaxel as metronomic palliative chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer
Vanita Noronha, Arvind Sahu, Vijay M Patil, Amit Joshi, Anant Ramaswamy, Arun Chandrasekharan, Nandkumar Kadam, Kumar Prabhash
April-June 2016, 5(2):67-69
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181643  PMID:27275452
Background: Topotecan is the standard second line agent used in relapsed small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, the erratic availability and the cost of the drug has been a prohibitive factor for its use in second-line setting in India. Paclitaxel has shown antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with SCLC. Hence, this audit was performed to study the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel as a form of metronomic therapy in the second-line setting in SCLC. Materials and Methods: Fifty-seven patients of relapsed SCLC who presented to the thoracic medical oncology unit of Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai between January 2011 and December 2015 were selected for this analysis. Weekly paclitaxel at a dose of 80 mg/m 2 was administered until progression or development of intolerable side effects or patient refusal. Data regarding baseline demographics, previous treatment history, response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and toxicity to weekly paclitaxel was extracted from a prospectively maintained database in the thoracic medical oncology unit and was analyzed using SPSS version 16 (IBM, New York, USA). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Results: Median age of the cohort was 58 years (40-77 years). Etoposide with carboplatin was the regimen used in 40 patients (70.2%) whereas the remaining 17 patients received etoposide with cisplatin (29.8%). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at relapse was 1 in 3 (5.3%), 2 in 49 (86.0%), and 3 in 5 (8.7%) patients. The response rate and clinical benefit rate were 9.1% (5 patients) and 52.7% (29 patients), respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities were seen in 10.5% (6 patients). The median PFS was 145 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 116.6-173.5 days) whereas the median OS was 168 days (95% CI: 112.5-223.5 days). Conclusion: Weekly paclitaxel as a second line agent in relapsed small cell cancer of the lung is a feasible and well-tolerated agent.
  3 1,399 265
Selected current data on metronomic therapy (and its promise) from India
PM Parikh, SS Hingmire, CD Deshmukh
April-June 2016, 5(2):37-47
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181623  PMID:27275444
  2 3,525 375
Evaluation of p16 hypermethylation in oral submucous fibrosis: A quantitative and comparative analysis in buccal cells and saliva using real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction
Subadra Kaliyaperumal, Sathasivasubramanian Sankarapandian
April-June 2016, 5(2):73-79
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181645  PMID:27275454
Aims: The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the hypermethylation of p16 gene in buccal cells and saliva of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients using real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare the values of two methods. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 samples were taken from 60 subjects selected for this study, of which 30 were controls and 30 patients were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with OSMF. In both groups, two sets of samples were collected, one directly from the buccal cells through cytobrush technique and the other through salivary rinse. We analyzed the samples for the presence of p16 hypermethylation using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In OSMF, the hypermethylation status of p16 in buccal cells was very high (93.3%) and in salivary samples, it was partially methylated (50%). However, no hypermethylation was found in controls suggesting that significant quantity of p16 hypermethylation was present in buccal cells and saliva in OSMF. Conclusions: This study indicates that buccal cell sampling may be a better method for evaluation than the salivary samples. It signifies that hypermethylation of p16 is an important factor to be considered in epigenetic alterations of normal cells to oral precancer, i.e. OSMF.
  2 1,455 275
Bromide contamination in rice, cancer risk for consumer
Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2016, 5(2):62-62
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181628  PMID:27275449
  2 2,112 206
Outcomes of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with integration of metronomic chemotherapy: An Indian rural cancer centre experience
Avinash Pandey, Desai Abhay, Jandyal Sunny, Ostwal Vikas, Patil Vijay, Kulkarni Rajeshri, Patil Netaji, Gupta Sudeep, Shripad D Banavali
April-June 2016, 5(2):59-62
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181627  PMID:27275448
Background: Paclitaxel-platinum and optimal cytoreductive surgery are the standard of care for ovarian carcinoma. Poor socioeconomic profile and therapeutic constraints in rural India poses a therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate outcomes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Objectives: To calculate disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and factors affecting outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as ovarian carcinoma registered between March 2009 and March 2014 were retrieved. Demographic profile, chemotherapy and response, surgery, and disease progression were collected. Patients who underwent surgery or completed three cycles of chemotherapy were selected. Kaplan-Meir survival was used to determine disease-free and OS. Log-rank test used to evaluate factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up is 26 months. 93/102 patients (91%) underwent cytoreductive surgery, of which 37 had primary cytoreduction (40%) while 56 had interval cytoreduction. 21/93 (23%), 57/93 (61%), and 15/93 (16%) patients were operated by local surgeons, surgeons of our hospital, and trained oncosurgeons, respectively. Induction paclitaxel-platinum was used in 35/63 (56%) patients while 28/63 patients (44%) received neoadjuvant metronomic chemotherapy. Median DFS and OS are 17 and 54 months respectively while 3 year OS of 66%. Median DFS of patients operated by oncosurgeons versus local surgeons were 22 months versus 15 months (P = 0.01), OS was 54 versus 26 months (P = 0.01).40/88 (45%) patients received maintenance metronomic therapy after adjuvant chemotherapy with median of 6 months (range 2-18 months). Patients receiving metronomic maintenance had better DFS, 18 months versus 15 months (P = 0.69). Conclusion: Induction therapy in ovarian carcinoma helps in selecting patients for cytoreductive surgery. Outcomes are better if operated by trained oncosurgeons. Maintenance metronomic has potential to delay disease progression.
  2 1,455 251
Tolerance of weekly metronomic paclitaxel and carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer patients who are unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin
SB Dessai, S Chakraborty, T. V. S. Babu, S Nayanar, A Bhattacharjee, J Jones, S Balasubramanian, Vijay M Patil
April-June 2016, 5(2):63-66
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181629  PMID:27275450
Objective: There are little data regarding safety and effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients who are considered unfit for receiving 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity and response rates of weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin as NACT in such cohort of patients. Methods: Study population included advanced ovarian cancer patients who were unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin and hence received weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m 2) and carboplatin AUC-2 as NACT. The data regarding the baseline characteristics, chemotherapy tolerance, completion rates, toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02), and radiological response rates are presented. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics is presented. Results: Eleven patients received this schedule. Nine patients completed nine cycles of NACT. Except one, all patients completed NACT with an average relative dose intensity of >0.8. There was no chemotherapy-related mortality. Grade 3-4 life-threatening complications were seen in two patients. The post NACT response rate was 100%. Conclusions: Weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy is safe and efficacious in patients who are unsuitable for 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy schedules.
  1 1,445 215
Micrometastases in axillary nodes: Out of the reckoning?
Akshita Singh, Vani Parmar
April-June 2016, 5(2):66-69
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181642  PMID:27275451
  - 1,494 149
Limitations of cytological cervical cancer screening (Papanicolaou test) regarding technical and cultural aspect in rural India
Dhiraj B Nikumbh, Roopali D Nikumbh, Shivraj N Kanthikar
April-June 2016, 5(2):79-79
DOI:10.4103/2278-330X.181646  PMID:27275455
  - 1,019 154