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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2018
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 215-272

Online since Friday, October 5, 2018

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Community-based study on the knowledge, awareness, and practices of females towards breast cancer in Buraimi, Oman p. 215
Vijay Kumar Chattu, Soosanna Kumary, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula
Background: In Oman, a higher proportion of patients presented with breast cancer are relatively young age and with an advanced stage. This could be due to lack of awareness and knowledge about breast cancer among young women. Aim: To assess the breast cancer knowledge, awareness and factors associated with the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) among females in Buraimi, Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among females attending the two days health exhibition event at a polyclinc, in Al-Buraimi, governorate. A pretested questionnaire to assess their knowledge, awareness and practices concerned to breast cancer was used. The collected data was categorized, analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression model. All the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 version. Results: Out of the total of one hundred and eighty nine (189) participants, 80% had information of breast cancer. Participants had better knowledge of symptoms but less knowledge about risk factors. When probed about BSE, only 43% performed it and only 21% of them do it monthly on regular basis. The main reasons for regular monthly BSE is mainly because of fear of breast cancer (9%), doctor's advice (6%) and awareness through media (5%). Conclusion: Our study participants showed insufficient knowledge in some areas related to sign and symptoms and risk factors of breast cancer and identified a negative influence of low knowledge on the practice of BSE. Thus, educational interventions need to be emphasized to provide comprehensive information of breast cancer.
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Chryseobacterium indologenes: An emerging uropathogen among hematological malignancy patients p. 218
Vishwanath Singh Yadav, Bimal K Das, Hitender Gautam, Seema Sood, Arti Kapil, Sarita Mohapatra
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Modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan as a feasible and efficacious second-line chemotherapeutic regimen in advanced gastric cancers p. 219
Anant Ramaswamy, Vikas Ostwal, Kushal Gupta, Vijai Simha, Anup Toshniwal, Nitin Shetty, Chaitali Nashikkar, Sarika Mandavkar, Sudeep Gupta
Background: Modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) is a commonly used combination second-line chemotherapeutic regimen in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with AGC, receiving biweekly mFOLFIRI between July 2013 and June 2016, as second-line chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed for tolerance, prognostic factors, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Overall, 91 patients were administered a median of 6 cycles of therapy. Response rate was 29.7% and clinical benefit rate was 57.2%. With a median follow-up of 11.5 months, median EFS was 3.98 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.54–5.41) and median OS was 7.73 months (95% CI: 5.30–10.15). Common Grade 3 and Grade 4 adverse events were neutropenia (18.7%), febrile neutropenia (9.9%), thrombocytopenia (7.7%), and vomiting (4.4%). Nearly 33% of patients required dose modification during therapy. Conclusions: mFOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy in AGCs appears feasible and efficacious in clinical practice.
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Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as upper limb gangrene Highly accessed article p. 222
U Lakshmi Priya, Mansoor C Abdulla, P Umashankar
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Retrospective study of oxaliplatin, leucovarin and 5 fluoruracil regimen in patients with advanced gastric cancer with poor performance status: A study at a tertiary center of South India p. 223
Guruprasad Bhat
Background: Gastric carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer in south India. Gastric cancer is frequently diagnosed in locally advanced or metastatic setting in Indian scenario and has a poor survival. There is no standard chemotherapy regimen which can be used in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity and toxicity of oxaliplatin with infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin administered every 3 weeks in patients with locally advanced and inoperable gastric cancer. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, the case records of 25 patients who have received OLF regimen were analyzed. Results: The median number of cycles for patients was 6 (range: 4–12 cycles). Overall response rate was 36%, with all patients having stable disease. Median survival of patients was 6 months (7 months in locally advanced). Compared to other regimens, there was less toxicity (less hematologic toxicity, less nausea and vomiting, no hair loss, no renal toxicity, no hand foot syndrome, and lesser admissions). Conclusions: OLF regimen is an acceptable regimen in poor performance status AGC patients with adequate response and an acceptable toxicity profile.
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Treatment outcomes of metastatic nonclear cell renal cell carcinoma: A single institution retrospective analysis p. 226
Vivek Agarwala, Anant Ramaswamy, Amit Joshi, Vijay Maruti Patil, Vanita Noronha, Santosh Menon, B Palak Popat, Nilesh Sable, Kumar Prabhash
Introduction: Nonclear cell (NCC) metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a biologically heterogeneous entity. We report the outcomes of NCC mRCC treated with first-line vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors at our institute. This is first such report from India. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the 40 consecutive patients of NCC mRCC treated between January 2013 and June 2015 in routine clinical practice at our institute. The primary endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) with respect to the type of first-line treatment and tumor histology. Results: The most common histological subtype was papillary in 25 patients (62.5%) followed by sarcomatoid in six (15%), chromophobe in 5 (12.5%), translocation-associated in one patient, and other nonspecified in three patients. First-line treatment was sorafenib in 14 (35%), sunitinib in 9 (22.5%), pazopanib in 8 (20%), everolimus in seven (17.5%), and best-supportive care (BSC) in two (5%) patients. Partial response, stable disease, and progression was observed in six (15%), 13 (32.5%), and nine (22.5%) cases, respectively, as the best response to first-line treatment. The median OS was 11.7 months and median event-free survival was 6.1 months in the whole cohort. The median OS in months for different first-line treatments were as follows: sorafenib (16.2), sunitinib (11.7), pazopanib (not reached, mean-23.9 ± 6.0), everolimus (4.1) and BSC (0.6) and for different histological subtypes were as follows: papillary (9.8), chromophobe (not reached, mean-30.3 ± 8.4), sarcomatoid (4.1), and others (7.9). Conclusions: Chromophobe histology has a better outcome compared to other histological subtypes, and anti-VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors are preferable first-line agents compared to mTOR inhibitors.
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Treatment of locally advanced carcinoma cervix with special emphasis on brachytherapy: A practice pattern survey among young radiation oncologist of India p. 231
Anis Bandyopadhyay, Poulami Basu, Kaushik Roy, Suman Das, Susovan Banerjee
Background: Carcinoma cervix is one of the two most common cancers of Indian women with very high morbidity and mortality burden. Although India probably is the leading country in numbers patients of cervix treated radically with combination of teletherapy and brachytherapy (BT), there is presumed diversity of practice across the country due to the inequality of available infrastructure, absence of uniform the training of the radiation oncologists, and absence of any national guidelines. The present survey was conducted to determine current practice patterns in management of locally advanced carcinoma cervix with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate among the radiation oncologist across the country. Methodology: A 25-item survey was undertaken to study the standard management pattern of Stage IIB–IIIB cervical cancer with special emphasis on the BT practice patterns among various young radiation oncologist working across the country. The survey was undertaken in person in the form of interview questionnaire among the younger members of association of radiation oncologist of India during two national conferences, along with telephonic interview of other members as obtained from the national directory. Results: About 57 young radiation oncologists from 57 centers across the country were surveyed. 25 of them represented private nonacademic centers, 24 represented government academic centers, the rest were from private academic, nongovernmental organization (NGO) run and other centers. The most common teletherapy dose prescribed was 46 Gy/23# for Stage II, and50 Gy/25 # for Stage III disease. HDR after loader with 192Ir is the most common machine (82.6%) in use and computed tomography scan is the most commonly (30/57) used imaging for planning. The most common intracavitary dose pattern for all stages was 7 Gy × 3 fractions (30/57s) and 9 Gy × 2 (12/57) fractions. Although in most centers, computed tomography-based delineation of organs at risk is done routinely; however, target volume delineation and dose prescription/optimization for the same is routinely done in handful of centers (5/57). The mean planned dose to Point A for combined external-beam radiation and BT (EQD210) wasabout 77.5 Gy for Stage IIIB and 72.6 Gy for Stage II disease. Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean dose administered for cervical cancer is similar across the country, which is slightly lower than the recommended doses as per stage by various international guidelines.
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Expression of p16INK4a and human papillomavirus 16 with associated risk factors in cervical premalignant and malignant lesions p. 236
Abha Pandey, Smita Chandra, Ruchira Nautiyal, Vikas Shrivastav
Introduction: Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is causative factor for cervical cancer may interact with p16 leading to malignant transformation of cervical epithelial cells. The present study was conducted to assess the immunoexpression of p16 INK4a in premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix and to correlate it with HPV 16 expression. It was also intended to study the various risk factors which may be associated with cervical cancer in this north Himalayan region of India. Material and Methods: The study included 50 cases of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions and 50 controls diagnosed on histopathology over a period of one year. All the relevant clinical details were noted and both cases and controls were subjected to HPV 16 and p16 INK4a immunohistochemical staining. Results: 67% of subjects (including cases and controls) and 94% of the cases were positive for HPV 16 expression. p16 INK4a expression was negative in all the controls, positive in 96% of invasive cancer, 66.6% in HSIL and 37.5% in LSIL. Conclusion: Cervical cancer is associated with low socio economic status, illiteracy, smoking, early age of marriage and conception in north Himalayan region of India. HPV 16 infection is positive in both cases and controls indicating high prevalence of HPV 16 in this region. Neoplastic transformation by HPV is identified by over expression of p16 INK4a in premalignant and malignant cases. The immunopositivity of p16 INK4a increases with the severity of cervical lesions and thus may play an important role in stratification of premalignant and malignant lesions.
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Age-adjusted charlson comorbidity index and 30-day morbidity in pelvic surgeries p. 240
Sampada B Dessai, R Fasal, J Dipin, D Adarsh, Satheesan Balasubramanian
Introduction: Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) is a validated tool enabling clinicians for prediction of adverse events posttherapy. In this study, we planned to estimate the predictive value of age-adjusted CCI (ACCI) in assessing the perioperative complication in oncological patients undergoing major pelvic surgeries. Methods: This was a single arm, prospective, observational study, in which adult patients with pelvic malignancies undergoing pelvic surgeries were selected. The relationship between the ACCI and Grade 3–5 adverse events were tested using Fisher's test. Results: The rate of Grade 3–5 adverse event rate was 16.7% (11 patients, n = 66). Among the whole cohort, 11 patients (16.7%) had high score on ACCI. The rate of Grade 3–5 adverse events was higher in the cohort of patients with high ACCI score (45.5% vs. 10.9%, P = 0.014). The sensitivity, specificity and negative and positive predictive values were 45.5%, 89.1%, 89.1%, and 45.5%, respectively. Conclusion: ACCI can predict for postsurgical adverse events. It has a high negative predictive value for nonoccurrence of adverse events.
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Population-based cancer screening through community participation: Outcome of a district wide oral cancer screening program from rural Kannur, Kerala, India p. 244
Phinse Mappalakayil Philip, Priyakanta Nayak, Sairu Philip, Neethu Ambali Parambil, Karthickeyan Duraisamy, Satheesan Balasubramanian
Background: Oral cancer is a major public health challenge, and about one-fifth of all oral cancer cases reported globally are from India. In spite of the potential for early detection by simple visual examination, the majority of patients report in later stages of the disease, especially in low and middle-income countries. We report the results from a district level population-based oral cancer screening program. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among people aged >15 years in 48 panchayats of Kannur district in Kerala, India. This comprehensive multi-stakeholder district-wide screening was carried out in six stages including planning, sensitization, recruiting of community volunteers and training, survey, organization of specialist camps and referring to cases to cancer center. The descriptive statistical analysis was performed using EpiData analysis software (Version Results: Among the 1,061,088 people in 265,272 houses surveyed, 2507 of them attended the screening camps, and 13 oral cancers and 174 oral precancers were detected. Majority of the oral cancer patients were male (69%), with primary education or illiterate (62%) and low socioeconomic status (61%). Five of the patients diagnosed with early-stage cancer are alive and have good oral health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Detection of precancerous and early-stage cancers should be a priority of oral cancer screening programs. The possible key for addressing cancer screening needs of the rural population is to equip the primary health centers in cancer screening activities with available human resources while adapting to local context.
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Quality of life and quality-adjusted time without toxicity in palliatively treated head-and-neck cancer patients p. 249
Vijay Patil, Amit Joshi, Vanita Noronha, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Sachin Dhumal, MV Chandrakanth, Ashay Karpe, Vikas Talreja, Arun Chandrasekharan, Siddharth Turkar, Nikhil Pande, Anant Ramaswamy, Kumar Prabhash
Background: Quality-adjusted time without toxicity (Q-TWiST) and quality of life (QOL) are indicators of benefit provided by different chemotherapy regimens. Methods: This was a prospective study, in which adult head-and-neck (H and N) cancer patients, treated with metronomic chemotherapy were enrolled. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General H and N (FACT-G and H and N) version 4 pro formas were self-administered before the start of chemotherapy and then at 2, 4, and 6 months. FACT QOL and Q-TWiST analysis were then performed. Results: There was an improvement in the social well-being (P = 0.370), emotional well-being (P = 0.000), functional well-being (P = 0.000), H and N cancer subscale (P = 0.001), FACT H and N trial outcome index (P = 0.000), FACT G-total score (P = 0.000), and FACT H and N total score (P = 0.000) with palliative chemotherapy. The QTWiST value for a utility score of 0.25 for toxicity and relapse state was 145.93 days. Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy is associated with improvement in QOL and has a low duration of time spent in toxicity state.
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Safety and efficacy of weekly versus three-weekly paclitaxel plus platinum neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell head and neck carcinoma: A pilot study p. 254
Akash Mathur, Naincy Rastogi, Dinesh Gurjar, Ramkrishna Sai, Arvind Lakesar, Hemant Malhotra
Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) is one of the most common cancers seen in India and also the world. Majority of patients present in locally advanced (LA) disease where neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy with a taxane plus platinum with/without 5-Fluorouracil is the standard of care treatment. There are no/few prospective trials of weekly paclitaxel in SCCHN in spite of convincing evidence regarding safety and tolerability in other solid tumors such as breast, ovary, and lung carcinoma. In the present study, we prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of weekly versus three-weekly paclitaxel plus platinum neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LA-SCCHN. Materials and Methods: We included 50 newly diagnosed patients of LA-SCCHN in the study and randomized them into two groups to receive either low-dose weekly (80 mg/sq. m) or standard three-weekly (175 mg/sq. m) paclitaxel along with standard dose carboplatin (AUC 5) and assessed response rates and toxicities. Results: Age and sex were evenly matched in both groups. Oral and oropharyngeal cancers were the most common sites. Hematological toxicities were significantly more in the three-weekly group. Nonhematological toxicities, especially neuropathy, were also more in this group. The overall response rate (complete response + partial response) in the three-weekly arm was 36% versus 52% in the weekly arm. Conclusion: Data from our small study suggest that weekly paclitaxel plus platinum neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be superior to the standard every 3 weeks' administration in terms of safety as well as efficacy in patients with LA-SCCHN.
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Comparative analysis of the Sokal, Euro and European Treatment and Outcome Study score in prognostication of Indian chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase patients on imatinib p. 258
Sunita Chhikara, Sudha Sazawal, Kanwaljeet Singh, Rekha Chaubey, Haraprasad Pati, Seema Tyagi, Manoranjan Mahapatra, Renu Saxena
Introduction: The ultimate goal for CML management is risk stratification of the patients to design the appropriate treatment approach. The Sokal, Euro and EUTOS risk scores were established to prognosticate the patients on therapy. Aim: To perform a comparative assessment of the Sokal, Euro and EUTOS prognostic score in Indian CML-CP patients on imatinib. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed in 260 Ph+ CML-CP patients who were administered oral imatinib (400 mg/day). Results: 166/260 were males and 94/260 were females (M: F::1.6:1) with median age 35 years (range 20-70). 92 (35.38%), 125 (48.07%) and 43 (16.5%) patients were divided into low, intermediate and high risk Sokal score respectively. 102 (39.23%), 106 (40.76%) and 52 (20%) patients were discriminated into low, intermediate and high risk Euro score respectively. 210 (80.7%) and 50 (19.2%) patients were divided into low and high risk EUTOS score. Cumulative incidence of MMR for low, intermediate and high-risk Sokal score was 87%, 76% and 84% respectively (P = 0.016). Incidence of MMR in low, intermediate and high-risk Euro score was 93%, 85% and 68% respectively (P = 0.001). Incidence of MMR was 80 % and 81% for low and high risk EUTOS score (P = 0.764). Both EFS and OS are significantly correlated with Sokal score (P = 0.004, P = 0.007) and Euro score (P = 0.009, P = 0.001) but not with EUTOS score (P = 0.581, P = 0.927). Conclusion: The present study highlights the significant prognostic role of Sokal and Euro score in predicting the treatment outcome of the CML- CP patients on imatinib.
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A rare case of pinealoblastoma in adult with complete response to treatment p. 262
Amrith Patel, Sumit Goyal, Udip Maheshwari, Manish Sharma, Ankush Jajodia, Venkata Pradeep Babu Koyyala
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Impact of cytogenetics on outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia p. 263
Rachana Chennamaneni, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Meher Lakshmi Konatam, Stalin Bala, Ashok Kumar, Lakshmi Srinivas
Context: In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most important prognostic factors are age, leukocyte count at presentation, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic abnormalities. The cytogenetic abnormalities are associated with distinct immunologic phenotypes of ALL and characteristic outcomes. Aims: The present study was primarily aimed at analyzing the impact of cytogenetics on postinduction responses and event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric patients with ALL. The secondary objective was to study the overall survival (OS). Subjects and Methods: A total of 240 patients with age <18 years and diagnosed with ALL between January 2011 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Cytogenetics was evaluated with conventional karyotyping or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Based on cytogenetic abnormalities, the patients were grouped into five categories, and the outcomes were analyzed. Results: Of the 240 patients, 125 (52%) patients had evaluable cytogenetics. Of these, 77 (61.6%) patients had normal cytogenetics, 19 (15.2%) had t(9;22) translocation, 10 (8%) had unfavorable cytogenetics which included t(9;11), hypodiploidy, and complex karyotype, 10 (8%) had favorable cytogenetics which included t(12;21), t(1;19), and high hyperdiploidy, 9 (7.2%) had miscellaneous cytogenetics. Seventy-one percent of patients were treated with MCP 841 protocol, while 29% of patients received BFM-ALL 95 protocol. The 3-year EFS and OS of the entire group were 52% and 58%, respectively. On univariate analysis, EFS and OS were significantly lower in t(9;22) compared to normal cytogenetics (P = 0.033 and P = 0.0253, respectively) and were not significant for other subgroups compared to normal cytogenetics. On multivariate analysis, EFS was significantly lower for t(9;22) and unfavorable subgroups. Conclusions: Cytogenetics plays an important role in the molecular characterization of ALL defining the prognostic subgroups. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics and with t(9;22) have poorer outcomes.
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Clinical and endoscopic response to high dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy in malignant lung tumors: A single centre experience p. 267
Sneha Dhillon, Saurabh Bansal, Girish Sindhwani, Meenu Gupta, Vipul Nautiyal, Sunil Saini, Mushtaq Ahmad
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, endoscopic response, and acute toxicities in endobronchial cancer treated with high-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB). Materials and Methods: Thirty patients of advanced endobronchial cancers were treated with HDR-EB. Brachytherapy was delivered at a depth of 1 cm from the source axis at weeks 1, 2, and 3 with 7 Gy per fraction. All patients were evaluated before treatment and at 1 month after completion of therapy. Using Speiser's scoring criteria, the severity of symptoms (dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, and postobstructive pneumonia) and degree of obstruction were graded. Results: Symptomatic response for cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis was seen in 88%, 75%, and 96%, respectively, with a significant P value (<0.05). Obstructive pneumonia was resolved in 94% of patients. Endoscopic response in terms of degree of obstruction was seen in 84% of patients. Acute toxicities in the form of radiation bronchitis were seen in 32% of patients, whereas 8% of patients experienced esophagitis. Bronchospasm was seen in one patient during treatment. Conclusion: HDR brachytherapy is a highly effective, safe, convenient therapy in alleviating symptoms of endobronchial obstruction with endoscopic response in the majority of cases. Thus, HDR-BT is a promising treatment for palliation of patients presenting with symptoms of endobronchial obstruction with an acceptable rate of complications.
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Clinicopathological features, treatment and survival outcomes of synovial sarcoma Highly accessed article p. 270
Siva Prasad Kuruva, Stalin Bala, Meher Lakshmi Konatam, Ashok Kumar Karnam, Lakshmi Srinivas Maddali, Sadashuivudu Gundeti
Introduction: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor. It is most common among children and adults. The data on SS from India are scarce. In this study, we analyzed the clinicopathological treatment parameters and survival outcomes of SS patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 histologically proven SS diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median age was 23 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Localized disease was seen in 44 patients (77%) and 13 patients (23%) had metastasis. The primary sites of involvement such as lower limb, upper limb, thorax, and abdomen were seen in 60%, 28%, 7%, and 5% patients, respectively. Surgery was done in 39 patients and 18 patients had unresectable disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin-based regimen was given in 30 patients and adjuvant radiotherapy in 21 patients. Palliative chemotherapy with anthracycline-based or gemcitabine-based regimen was used in 17 and 2 patients, respectively. The median event-free survival (EFS) was 30 months with 3 years and EFS rate was 36%; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.5 months and 1 year; and PFS rate was 38%. On univariate analysis, resection and performance status were significantly associated with survival. There is no impact of grade and size of the tumor on survival. In metastatic patients, the lung is the most common site. Conclusion: SS is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma among adults. Resectability and performance status were impacting the survival.
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