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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2018
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-65

Online since Wednesday, March 7, 2018

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Prognostic factors and outcomes in anaplastic gliomas: An institutional experienceLetter to the Editor Highly accessed article p. 1
Deepthi Valiyaveettil, Monica Malik, Deepa Joseph, Syed Fayaz Ahmed, Syed Akram Kothwal
Background: There is lack of clear evidence and treatment guidelines for anaplastic gliomas (AGs) with very few studies focusing exclusively on these patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile and survival in these patients. Materials and Methods: Patients of AGs treated with radiation and concurrent ± adjuvant chemotherapy from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 software. Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. The median age was 35 years (range 6–68 years). Eighty-four patients had follow-up details and were included for survival analysis. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 58%. Age, presentation with seizures, and focal neurological deficit were not found to significantly influence survival. The 5-year survival for oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma was 69% and 52%, respectively. Patients with Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) of ≥70 had a significantly better 5-year OS (65%) as compared to those with KPS <70 (33%) (P = 0.000). The use of adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) showed longer 5-year OS of 67.7% compared to 36% in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.018). Patients receiving both concurrent and adjuvant TMZ showed longer 5-year OS (68.5% vs. 40%, P = 0.010). Twenty-two patients had recurrence with average time to recurrence being 37 months. Fourteen patients underwent salvage surgery and two patients received reirradiation. Conclusions: OS significantly correlated with KPS and receipt of concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with TMZ. Therefore, adjuvant radiation with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ should be the standard of care for AGs.
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A large cystic gastrointestinal stromal tumor within lesser sac: A diagnostic dilemma p. 4
Anup Sunil Tamhankar, Tanuja Anup Tamhankar
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Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of breast cancer patients of eastern India: A multi-institutional study p. 5
Koushik Chatterjee, Gautam Bhaumik, Bhargab Chattopadhyay
Context: There is a paucity of any significant data on the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of breast cancer patients from the eastern part of India. Aims: This study aims to document the ER and PR status of breast cancer patients in the eastern Indian population, as catered by two premier tertiary care hospitals in Kolkata. Subjects and Methods: All breast cancer patients registered between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, in the Departments of Oncology, of IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals and R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, who had at least undergone a core biopsy or surgery, were analyzed retrospectively for documentation of their ER and PR status, using the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) interpretation guidelines. Results: Over a period of 3 years, a total of 927 patients were included for the study. A total of 825 (89%) patients had their ER and PR data available for evaluation. ER and PR positive was seen in 312 (37.82%) patients, ER and PR negative in 399 (48.36%) patients, ER positive and PR negative in 71 (8.6%) patients, and ER negative and PR positive results was found in 43 (5.21%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first multi-institutional documentation of ER and PR status from eastern India, having a modest number of patients and one of the earliest documentations using the latest ASCO/CAP interpretation guidelines. These findings resemble the data from the south and also reiterate the fact that majority of the Indian breast cancer patients are still ER and PR negative in spite of the changes in the interpretation guidelines.
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Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status in breast cancer: A retrospective study of 5436 women from a regional cancer center in South India p. 7
Rekha Vijay Kumar, Dipti Panwar, Usha Amirtham, Chennagiri Srinivasmurthy Premalata, Champaka Gopal, Suma Mysore Narayana, Geetha Vikram Patil Okaly, KC Lakshmaiah, S Krishnamurthy
Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status over 7 years in South Indian women with breast cancer. Further analysis of a subgroup was done to study clinically defined subtypes and the role of preanalytical factors in needle core biopsies (NCBs) and excised specimens. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and available immunohistochemistry (IHC) reports of ER, PR, and HER2 status were analyzed. The cases for the year 2016 were analyzed further to observe the impact of preanalytical factors on the IHC staining patterns and surrogate status. Results: A total of 5436 patients were included with a median age of 48 years. Among these, 65% were ≤ 55 years. The overall incidence of hormone receptor (HR)-positive patients was 48%; HER2 positive, 15%; and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), 37%. The incidence of HR positive, HER2 positive, and TNBC were 45%, 16%, and 39% and 53%, 13%, and 34% in patients <56 years and over 55 years, respectively (P < 0.001). There was an increase in HR positivity and decrease in TNBCs over time. There was no significant difference in the staining patterns in NCBs and excised specimens. Conclusion: With time, there is an increase in hormone-positive tumors which may be attributed to better IHC techniques and tissue handling. There was no statistical difference in the patterns of ER, PR, and HER2 immunostaining in core biopsy and excised specimens.
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Comparison of health-related quality of life with epirubicin, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy regimens as first-line systemic therapy in locally advanced inoperable or metastatic gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma: A prospective study from South India p. 11
K Govind Babu, Tamojit Chaudhuri, KC Lakshmaiah, Lokanatha Dasappa, Linu Abraham Jacob, MC Suresh Babu, AH Rudresha, KN Lokesh, LK Rajeev
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important oncologic end point for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Unfortunately, till date, there is no published prospective data from India, comparing the HRQOL parameters between first-line chemotherapy regimens in advanced/metastatic gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to compare the HRQOL of first-line systemic chemotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin plus 5-FU (ECF) and docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-FU (DCF) regimens in patients with locally advanced inoperable or metastatic gastric or gastro-esophageal junction adenocarcinoma. The secondary end points were overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile. Results: Between December 2014 and December 2016, 65 patients were treated with ECF (n = 34) or DCF (n = 31) regimen. The baseline HRQOL scores were comparable between the two study groups, with the exception of significantly poor pain and sleep difficulties symptom score in the DCF group. After three cycles of treatment, both the groups showed improvements in most of the quality of life (QOL) parameters including global QOL score, compared with their baseline status. After six cycles of chemotherapy, the ECF group showed nonsignificant deterioration for most of the QOL parameters; but on the contrary, the DCF group maintained improved scores for most of the QOL parameters. The median survival until a definitive deterioration of global QOL score was significantly better in the DCF arm in comparison to the ECF arm (7.1 vs. 5.6 months, respectively, P = 0.000). The median OS was 9.2 months with ECF and 12.5 months with DCF regimen (P = 0.000), while median PFS was 5.7 and 7.4 months with ECF and DCF regimens, respectively (P = 0.002). Conclusions: This prospective study highlighted a better impact of DCF chemotherapy on the HRQOL of patients with advanced/metastatic gastric cancer and showed the importance of QOL assessments in clinical trials to complement the risk–benefit judgment.
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Assessment of quality of life in resectable gastric cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy as adjuvant treatmentLetter to the Editor p. 16
Deep Shankar Pruthi, Mushtaq Ahmad, Meenu Gupta, Saurabh Bansal, Vipul Nautiyal, Sunil Saini
Introduction: Quality of life (QOL) is increasingly recognized as an important endpoint in cancer therapies. However, few data are available on QOL in patients who have received radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for cancer stomach. Methods: Thirty patients who underwent curative resection were enrolled and received chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique), together with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL questionnaire C30 and STO Q22 was assessed at four time points: pre- and postchemoradiotherapy and at 1-month and 6-month follow-up. Results: Mean age of the patients was 54 years. Male:female ratio was 4:1. Stage II and Stage III disease was present in 60% and 30% of patients, respectively. All patients were able to complete the chemoradiotherapy protocol. Our study found out significant impairment in QOL for emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea and vomiting and dyspnea. Results showed that QOL levels decrease postchemoradiotherapy; however, QOL levels returned to baseline at 1-month and 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Chemoradiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for cancer stomach patients who have undergone resection with curative intent is a safe and well-tolerated regimen with respect to QOL.
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to metastatic breast cancer p. 20
Pey Ling Shum, Brian Ngo, Xiao Chen, Robert Jarvis
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Incidental gallbladder carcinoma: Utility of histopathological evaluation of routine cholecystectomy specimens p. 21
Vidya Jha, Preeti Sharma, K Ashish Mandal
Background: Incidental gallbladder carcinoma (IGBC) is rare cancer diagnosed during or after cholecystectomy done for benign gallbladder disease. The concern whether routine histopathological examination is needed for all cholecystectomy specimens still remains debatable. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with IGBC over a period of 2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical details including clinical presentation, preoperative ultrasound (USG) findings, and macroscopic features were retrieved. Diagnosis of IGBC was confirmed on microscopic examination, and staging was done using the tumor node metastasis staging system. Results: Of the 4800 cholecystectomy specimens retrieved, diagnosis of IGBC was rendered in twenty cases (0.41%). Mean patient age was 50.65 years with a female preponderance. Preoperative USG detected an increase in wall thickness in six cases (30%) in contrast to gross examination which revealed the same in 55% (11/20) cases. Mucosal ulceration was observed in two cases (10%) of IGBC and seven cases (35%) did not reveal any preoperative or macroscopic findings suggestive of malignancy. Associated cholelithiasis was observed in 14 cases. Final diagnosis of IGBC was made on histomorphological assessment with tumor cells infiltrating the lamina propria in three cases (pT1b), muscularis propria in 15 cases (pT1b), and serosa in the remaining 2 cases (pT2). Conclusion: IGBC is a clinical masquerader which often evades the eye of a radiologist and comes as pathological surprise. Histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens remains the gold standard for the detection of this occult, yet notorious malignancy and assessment of the depth of invasion in IGBC guide further management.
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Epidemiology of liver cancer in Nile delta over a decade: A single-center study p. 24
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Nadia Elwan, Hanan Soliman, Dina Ziada, Walaa Elkhalawany, Marwa Salama, Nehad Hawash, Mona Arafa, Rehab Badawi, Walaa M Shehata, Haidy S Khalil, Nehal Elmashad
Background: In Egypt, there has been a remarkable increase in the proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among chronic liver diseases patients. This rising proportion may be explained by the increasing risk factors as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, improvement of the diagnostic tools of HCC as well as the extended survival among patients with cirrhosis to allow time for some of them to develop HCC. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of HCC in Nile delta over the last decade. Methods: The study was carried out on patients diagnosed as HCC in liver cancer clinic in Tanta University Hospital, Egypt, from January 2005 to January 2015. This retrospective study reviewed the files of HCC patients with special stress on age, sex, residence, occupation, smoking, and viral markers. Results: Over the last decade, 1440 HCC patients were diagnosed or referred to liver cancer clinic in Tropical Medicine Department in Tanta University Hospital from January 2005 to January 2015. The mean age of HCC patients was 56.13 ± 9.53 years. Nearly, half of the patients with HCC were smokers and quarter of HCC patients were diabetics. HBV surface antigen-positive patients were only 3.26%, and the majority of patients were HCV-Ab positive (94.86% of patients). Conclusions: In Nile delta, hepatitis C rather than hepatitis B was linked to the development of HCC in our region which may be related to the high prevalence of HCV in this area.
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Standard-dose versus high-dose radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in esophageal cancer: A prospective randomized study p. 27
Navin Nayan, M Bhattacharyya, Vikas K Jagtap, AK Kalita, R Sunku, PS Roy
Objective: The objective of this study is comparision of local and distant control rates with high-dose versus standard-dose radiotherapy along with concurrent chemotherapy in esophageal cancer – a prospective randomized study. Materials and Methods: Histologically proven Stage I–III patients with carcinoma esophagus were randomized into two groups. One group has been treated with standard-dose radiotherapy, i.e., a total dose of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/day, 28#, 5 days/week). The other group (study arm) has received high-dose radiotherapy, i.e. a total dose of 64.8 Gy (1.8 Gy/day, 36#, 5 days/week). Both groups have received 2 cycles of 3 weekly concurrent chemotherapy (cisplatin 75 mg/m[2] on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m[2] continuous intravenous infusion over 24 h on day 1–4). Follow-up response evaluation was done by both endoscopy and computed tomography scan after 6–8 weeks and after 2 months thereafter. Results: Out of a total of 28 patients, 68% showed a complete response, 14% showed partial response, and 18% patients developed progressive disease at first and subsequent follow up (median follow-up of 21 months). Among the complete response patients, rates were higher in high-dose group compared to standard-dose radiotherapy group (71% vs. 64%, P = 0.38). Treatment-related toxicities were acceptable in both groups. Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy seems to be more effective with acceptable toxicity in our study. However, further follow-up and large sample size may be required to validate the current study conclusion.
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Outcomes of carcinosarcoma in a tertiary care institution in India p. 31
Anne George Cherian, Anitha Thomas, Ajit Sebastian, Tunny Sebastian, Vinotha Thomas, Rachel G Chandy, Abraham Peedicayil
Background: Carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy, and reports are often mixed along with other sarcomas. The literature on uterine carcinosarcoma per se is sparse. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the demography, survival, and optimal treatment strategy of uterine carcinosarcoma. Settings and Design: A tertiary care center in India. The study design was descriptive with survival analysis. Materials and Methods: The medical records of all 18 patients admitted with uterine carcinosarcoma between January 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were studied. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared between treatment groups using the Log-rank test. Results: The total number of uterine malignancies operated in our center over this time period was 311 of which 18 were carcinosarcomas (5.7%). Median age of presentation was 61 years (36–77 years). Most women (94%) were postmenopausal and 67% of them presented with postmenopausal bleeding. Over half of the patients (56%) presented late (Stage III or IV). Only 11 (61%) had adjuvant treatment and 7 patients had expired at the time of follow-up. The median survival was 284 days (95% confidence interval 107–461). Patients who received adjuvant therapy did better compared to those who did not (P = 0.036). Conclusions: Carcinosarcomas are aggressive tumors of postmenopausal women who present with bleeding or discharge per vaginum. In spite of adequate surgical staging followed by adjuvant therapy, survival remains poor. Improvements in early detection and optimal therapy need to be made.
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Geographical distribution of cervical cancer in Odisha: A 5-year retrospective study at a regional cancer center p. 34
Pradeep Kumar Hota, Niharika Panda, Bhagyalaxmi Nayak, Sagarika Samantaray
Background: Cancer cervix and breast are the two major female health problems in India. A hospital-based, 5-year (2010–2014) retrospective study was conducted at a regional cancer center of Odisha to analyze the present burden of cancer cervix in this state, which has a population of more than 45.5 million at present. Materials and Methods: All the patients suffering from cancer cervix that was treated by radiotherapy during 2010–2014 at this center were analyzed year wise for age, stage of disease, and native area. Results: Based on the Census 2011 data, it was calculated and found that from the low-literacy area on an average of 4.62 cervical cancer patients per million, from the medium-literacy area 6.56 patients per million, and from high-literacy area 19.11 patients per million of population have received radiotherapy in this hospital. More than 60% of patients with cervical cancer were from stage IIIB and in the age group of 50–55 years. Discussion: Odisha has 83.7% female population in rural areas with literacy rate below 50%. Due to lack of awareness and unavailability of cancer care facilities at their reach, they mainly depend on various alternative medicines in unscientific manner for their health care. Conclusion: Strengthening of existing regional cancer center, development of oncology wings in all medical college hospitals by providing basic radiotherapy facilities, emphasizing more on district cancer control programs, decentralizing of NGO schemes, and facilitating with more cancer screening and awareness programs may help better registration, prevention, and treatment of cancer in Odisha.
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Translation and validation of European Organization for Research and Treatment for Cancer quality of life questionnaire-OV-28 module into Indian languages (Hindi and Marathi) to study quality of life of ovarian cancer patients from a tertiary care cancer center p. 37
Jyoti Bajpai, Pankaj Kumar Panda, Shraddha Kagwade, Madhavi Govilkar, Shruti Velaskar, Yogesh Kembhavi, Sudeep Gupta, Jaya Ghosh, Jayita Deodhar
Aim: The aim is to translate and validate the European Organization for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC) ovarian cancer (OC) module (OV-28) into Hindi and Marathi to use for patients and scientific community. Methods and Results: The EORTC OV-28 was translated into Hindi and Marathi languages using prescribed guidelines by the EORTC. The process included forward translation by four translators (2 each for Hindi and Marathi). The questionnaires obtained were then given to independent backward-translators who then translated them back into English. These 2 questionnaires were then compared with the original EORTC questionnaire and the second intermediate questionnaires were formed. The second intermediate questionnaire was subsequently administered in twenty patients (10 each for Hindi and Marathi) diagnosed with OC who had never seen the questionnaire before, for pilot testing. Each of these ten patients after filling up the questionnaire themselves was then interviewed for any difficulty encountered during the filling up of the questionnaires. These were in the form of specific modules including difficulty in answering, confusion while answering, and difficulty to understand, whether the questions were upsetting and if patients would have asked the question in any different way. The suggestions were incorporated into the second intermediate questionnaires to form the final Hindi and Marathi ON-28 questionnaires. These questionnaires were then sent to the EORTC for the final approval to be used in clinical studies. Conclusion: We have successfully translated EORTC OV-28 module into Hindi and Marathi languages, and EORTC approved them to be used in clinical practice and studies for OC patients.
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Prophylactic salpingectomy and ovarian cancer: An evidence-based analysis p. 42
Tricia Dewi Anggraeni, Adly Nanda Al Fattah, Raymond Surya
Introduction: One of the ovarian carcinogenesis theories was the presence of premalignant cells in the epithelium of the fallopian tube. Therefore, the prophylactic salpingectomy during benign gynecological surgery is now expected as the attempt to reduce the ovarian cancer incidence. We studied the effect of prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy (PBS) in reducing the ovarian cancer incidence. Methods: This evidence-based report resulted from critical appraisal of 5 articles. It is aimed to answer our clinical question, can bilateral prophylactic salpingectomy reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer among women underwent hysterectomy for benign condition or permanent contraception surgery? The search was conducted on the Cochrane Library®, PubMed®, and Embase® using keywords of “prophylactic salpingectomy,” and “ovarian cancer incidence.” Reference lists of relevant articles were searched for other possibly relevant articles. Results: Five studies were included in our appraisal. The incidence of ovarian cancer among women underwent prophylactic salpingectomy is lower compared to women who were not underwent any intervention (2.2% to 13% and 4.75% to 24.4%). The salpingectomy may reduce 29.2% to 64% of ovarian cancer incidence. No significant effect of PBS to ovarian function, quality of life, sexuality, surgery duration, and its cost-effective profile were also found throughout our literature study. Conclusion: PBS is suggested to be performed for women during benign gynecological surgery as a primary preventive strategy of ovarian cancer. PBS is a cost-effective procedure, risk-reducing for ovarian cancer and has no significant effect to the ovarian function.
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Assessment of oral mucositis during concurrent chemoradiation of head and neck cancers using patient-reported measurement scale p. 46
Nallan C S K Chaitanya, Arvind Muthukrishnan, P Karunakar, Manchala Himani, Neeharika Satya Jyothi Allam, Neha Jain
Introduction: Oral mucositis (OM) is a major challenge encountered in concurrent radiochemotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancers. The patient reported OM symptoms scale (PROMS) was administered on these patients. The objective was to develop the similar scale in an Indian language and prescribe it population undergoing cancer treatment. Materials and Methods: PROMS scale was converted to Telugu language. Fifty-one patients took part in the study. All of them answered the 10-point questions marked their responses on 100 mm visual analog scale after thorough oral examination using WHO grading by the same examiner. Results: Internal consistency of Cronbach's alpha on PROMS scale was 0.81–0.97. The questionnaire study was administered on 35 males and 16 females with the mean age of 54.9 ± 11.8. The decrease in the total PROMS score was marked on day 35 in almost all patients, with a mean value of 34.04 ± 30.2 followed by a further significant decrease on day 60 (follow-up) with a mean of 3.71 ± 7.8. The PROMS scores correlated strongly with the clinician-rated OM scores during the first 35 weeks from the baseline at 0.84 with P < 0.01 and poor correlation was at day 60, i.e. 0.32 with P < 0.05 using Spearman's Rho correlation. Conclusion: The study showed a good correlation between patient-reported items and clinical score by standard grading scale. This questionnaire may not be a sole guide in assessing the severity of OM but could be definitely used as an adjunct to clinical oral examination at assessment levels.
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Squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: An analysis of prognostic factors p. 49
Saurabh Bobdey, Jignasa Sathwara, Aanchal Jain, Sushma Saoba, Ganesh Balasubramaniam
Introduction: Carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is the most common oral cavity cancer in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome and evaluate prognostic factors in surgically treated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (BMSCC) patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 409 pathologically proven buccal mucosa cancer patients, who were diagnosed and surgically treated in Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008. Results: The overall 5-year survival of the cohort was found to be 54.1%. The stage-wise survival rate for tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) Stage I, II, III, and IV patients was found to be 85.2%, 82.9%, 56.3%, and 42.6% (P < 0.00), respectively. On multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, the presence of comorbidity, histological tumor size, pathological lymph node status, tumor differentiation, perineural invasion, and extracapsular spread were found to be independently associated with overall survival. Conclusion: BMSCC is an aggressive malignant tumor. In addition to TNM classification, other clinical and pathological factors also have a significant role in BMSCC prognostication. Hence, there is a need to move beyond TNM and develop a more inclusive, flexible, and easy to use prognostic system.
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Prospective study of sequential volumetric changes of parotid gland in early oropharyngeal carcinoma patients treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy: An institutional experience p. 55
Pooja Nandwani Patel, Sumit Goyal, Anand Shah, Mehul Gohel, Unnikrishnan Suryanarayana
Aims and Objectives: During course of radiation therapy, anatomical variations occur risking overdose of parotid gland. We tried to quantify volume of parotid gland and mean dose to parotid gland after every 10 fractions (#). Materials and Methods: We conducted the prospective study from July 2016 to May 2017 in 25 patients of early-stage oropharyngeal carcinoma. Patients had Karnofsy Performance Score of 80–100, median age was 54 years, and 18 patients were males. Patients were planned with intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning with dose as 66 Gy/30# to planning target volume (PTV) including primary and 54 Gy/30# to PTV-nodal including elective neck irradiation. After each 10#, replanning was done, and variations in parotid volume were studied including Dmean(mean dose to parotids) and D50(the dose delivered to 50% of volume). Other tumor characteristic like PTV of primary was also assessed and minimum PTV volume covered by 95% isodose line was kept as 95%. Results: Average parotid volumes decreased by the mean value of 10% and 6% for the left and right parotids, respectively, and PTV of primary target decreased by mean of 13%. The difference in Dmeandoses to parotid glands was 32% and 42% and difference in D50dose was 30% and 35% on the left and right side, respectively. Conclusions: The parotid volumes differ considerably during adaptive planning done after every ten fractions. These differences in parotid volumes and doses received to parotid glands play a significant role in the risk of xerostomia observed during later follow-up.
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Efficacy and tolerability of bortezomib and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma p. 58
Mir Sadaqat Hassan Zafar, Afaq Ahmed Khan, Shyam Aggarwal, Manorama Bhargava
Background: Outcome in multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over recent years as a result of the availability of multiple novel agents with acceptable safety profile. Study Design: Prospective observational study at a tertiary care institute. Methods: Twenty-five newly diagnosed patients of MM were treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone induction with monitoring for response and safety, followed by peripheral blood autologous stem cell transplant (PBASCT) in eligible patients or maintenance. Results: Out of 25 patients, 32% attained complete response (CR), 56% very good partial response (VGPR), 4% PR, and 8% showed no response. The overall response rate was 92%. In our study, 56% of patients showed hematological side effects, out of which thrombocytopenia was seen in 32%, anemia in 16%, and leukopenia in 8%. Six patients developed bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy, out of which four had grade 1 (66.66%), one had grade 2 (16.66%), and 1 (16.66%) had grade 3 toxicity. Sixteen patients were eligible for PBASCT, out of which eight patients received this therapy while as remaining eight patients opted for two more cycles of induction therapy followed by maintenance. After completing 18 months of maintenance, all the eight patients who underwent PBASCT were in CR. Out of the 15 patients who did not receive PBASCT five attained CR, eight VGPR while as two patients relapsed. Conclusion: Bortezomib plus dexamethasone is highly effective and well-tolerated regimen for frontline treatment of MM with a higher quality of response in an advanced stage and renal failure patients.
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Clinical outcome study of crizotinib in immunohistochemistry-proven echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene among Indian patients with adenocarcinoma lung p. 61
Ullas Batra, Mohit Aggarwal, Parveen Jain, Pankaj Goyal, Abhishek Yadav, Udip Maheshwari, Anurag Mehta
Aims: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) Break Apart FISH Probe Kit and Ventana anti-ALK (D5F3) CDx immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay are the Food and Drug Administration-approved companion diagnostic for targeted therapy with the ALK inhibitor crizotinib in lung cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of twice daily crizotinib tablet (250 mg) in IHC-proven echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion gene among Indian patients with adenocarcinoma lung in the routine clinical practice. Subjects and Methods: Patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, whose tumors were found to be positive for EML4-ALK fusion gene using IHC, were considered for this study. IHC analysis was performed using a Ventana automated immunostainer (Benchmark XT). Detection was performed using Optiview DAB detection and amplification kit. Results: A total of 25 NSCLC adenocarcinoma patients were included in the study. There were 14 (56%) women and 10 (44%) men with a median age of 53 years. All patients had Stage IV disease at the time of initiation of crizotinib therapy. One patient achieved complete response and 20 achieved response rate (PR) for an overall PR of 84%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.8 months and median overall survival (OS) was 20.6 months. Two (8%) patients experienced severe hepatotoxicity requiring permanent discontinuation of crizotinib therapy. Conclusions: A very high PR, PFS, and OS achieved in our study population indicates that IHC can accurately identify EML4 ALK fusion gene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma patients who are responsive to ALK inhibitors such as crizotinib. IHC should be considered as a cost-effective alternative to FISH, especially in low-resource countries.
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced invasive lobular carcinoma: A limited institutional experience p. 64
Ajay Gogia, Vinod Raina, SV S. Deo, NK Shukla, Sandeep Mathur, DN Sharma
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