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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-84

Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of case–control studies in Indian women

1 Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, India
2 The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Texas, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gayatri Vishwakarma
Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_317_18

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Background/Objective: India is the world's most biodiverse region and is undergoing a period of dramatic social and economic change. Due to population's explosion, climate change and lax implementation of environmental policies, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. From population-based cancer registry data, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in urban registries where it constitutes more than 30% of all cancers in females. We conducted a meta-analysis of all breast cancer case–control studies conducted in India during 1991–2018 to find pooled estimates of odds ratio (OR). Materials and Methods: Eligible studies were identified through a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and HINARI databases from 1991 to January 2018. This analysis included 24 observational studies out of 34 that reported the case–control distribution of reproductive factors, body mass index (BMI) and type of residence. The analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 (Review Manager, 2017) applying the random-effects model. Results: A total of 21,511 patients (9889 cases and 11,622 controls) were analyzed, resulting in statistically significant association between breast cancer and the following reproductive factors: never breastfeed (OR: 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70, 8.01), menopausal age >50 years (OR: 2.88; 95% CI: 1.85, 3.85), menarche age <13 years (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.51), null parity (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.06), postmenopause (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.62), and age at the 1st pregnancy >25 years (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.37, 1.80). Family history (FH) of breast cancer (OR: 5.33; 95% CI: 2.89, 9.82), obesity (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42), and urban residence (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.44) were also found to be significant risk factors. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis are indicative of significant associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk, profoundly so among women experiencing menopause after the age of 50, women who never breastfeed and FH of breast cancer.

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