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ORIGINAL ARTICLE: HEAD AND NECK CANCER
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 183-187

The epidemiology, treatment, and determinants of outcome of primary head and neck cancers at the Jos University Teaching Hospital


1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Head and Neck Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Adeyi A Adoga
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_15_18

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Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and factors that determine the outcomes of head and neck cancers (HNC). Patients and Methods: Retrospective analytical review of HNC managed at the Jos University Teaching Hospital between May 2007 and April 2017 using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Results: Of 487 head and neck neoplasms, 129 (26.5%) were malignant and 122 health records met the criteria for analysis consisting of 83 (68.0%) males and 39 (32.0%) females aged 13 years to 85 years (mean = 51 years; standard deviation = ±16.0 years). The most common presenting feature was nasal obstruction (n = 47; 38.5%). The most common tumor site was the nasopharynx (n = 34; 27.9%). Mean duration of symptoms was 13.3 months. Alcohol (P = 0.02), cigarette smoking (P = 0.01), and cooking wood smoke (P = 0.01) were associated with advanced tumor stage. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. Posttreatment complication rate was 47.5%. Lost to follow-up rate was 55.7%. The lungs were the most common distant metastatic site. The case fatality rate was 18.0%. Conclusion: HNC constitutes almost a quarter of head and neck tumors affecting twice the number of males in their sixth decade with nasopharyngeal cancers being the most common in both genders. Several modifiable variables are noted to target appropriate future cancer education for lifestyle modification, screening for early detection and treatment.


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