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ORIGINAL ARTICLE: LUNG CANCER
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 169-170

Regional reporting of the incidence of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase mutation in 379 non-small-cell lung cancer patients from Kolkata: Using immunohistochemistry as the diagnostic modality in a significant subset


1 Department of Radiotherapy, IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Clinical Research, DACRRI, under CCRH, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of , Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication21-Dec-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Koushik Chatterjee
Department of Radiotherapy, IPGMER and SSKM Hospitals, Kolkata, West Bengal
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/sajc.sajc_65_17

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  Abstract 

Context: Regional epidemiology of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an unmet need in India, and so is the knowledge of its incidence based on immunohistochemistry (IHC). Aims: Reporting the incidence of ALK mutation in NSCLC from Kolkata, incorporating IHC as the diagnostic modality in a considerable subset of patients. Subjects and Methods: It is a retrospective observational study done on NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma histology, unselected by epidermal growth factor receptor, whose samples were tested for ALK mutation status between March 1, 2013, and March 15, 2017. The study involved all cancer facilities in Kolkata, except Tata Medical Centre. Up to June 2015, the tests were done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and from July 2015 to the end, tests were done using IHC, as per the standard testing guidelines existing during the respective time periods. Results were documented in a de-identified manner to analyze the incidence of ALK mutations. Results: A total of 379 patients was tested for ALK mutations. March 2013 to June 2015, 200 (52.77%) patients were tested by FISH, 17 (8.5%) samples were unreportable and 4 patients [(2.19%) 4/183] tested positive for ALK mutations. From July 2015 to March 2017, 179 (47.22%) patients were tested by IHC, 9 (5.02%) samples were unreportable, and 10 patients [(5.88%) 10/170] tested positive for ALK mutations. Overall, 26 (6.8%) samples were unreportable and 14 [(3.9%) 14/353] patients tested positive for ALK mutations. Conclusions: The overall incidence of ALK mutation positive NSCLC in Kolkata is 3.9%. The incidence by IHC is 5.88% and by FISH is 2.19%, in the subset of patients tested by these two modalities respectively.

Keywords: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation by immunohistochemistry, anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation in lung adenocarcinoma unselected by epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation in nonsmall cell lung cancer, incidence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation from Kolkata


How to cite this article:
Chatterjee K, Bhowmik R, Chattopadhyay B. Regional reporting of the incidence of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase mutation in 379 non-small-cell lung cancer patients from Kolkata: Using immunohistochemistry as the diagnostic modality in a significant subset. South Asian J Cancer 2017;6:169-70

How to cite this URL:
Chatterjee K, Bhowmik R, Chattopadhyay B. Regional reporting of the incidence of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase mutation in 379 non-small-cell lung cancer patients from Kolkata: Using immunohistochemistry as the diagnostic modality in a significant subset. South Asian J Cancer [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 20];6:169-70. Available from: http://journal.sajc.org/text.asp?2017/6/4/169/221356


  Introduction Top


Regional epidemiology of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement (ALK mutation) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an unmet need in India, and so is the knowledge of its incidence when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used as the detection tool. This study from Kolkata was envisaged primarily to report the incidence of ALK mutation from the eastern part of the country and at the same time, to generate the first report of its incidence based on IHC, from India.


  Subjects and Methods Top


It is a retrospective observational study, done in Kolkata, on a cohort of NSCLC patients with adenocarcinoma histology, unselected by epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status, whose formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded samples were tested for ALK mutation status between March 1, 2013, and March 15, 2017. The study involved all cancer facilities in Kolkata, except Tata Medical Centre (All patients tested in-house), and all the tests were done free as a part of Patients Assistance Programme of Pfizer Limited. From March 1, 2013, to June 30, 2015, the ALK mutation tests were done by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using FDA approved Abbot Vysis ALK Break Apart FISH Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbott Park, IL, USA). And, from July 1, 2015, to March 15, 2017, ALK mutation tests were done by IHC using FDA approved Ventana (Roche) ALK assay with D5F3 rabbit monoclonal antibody, following the standard testing guidelines existing during the respective time periods. The test results were documented in a de-identified manner to analyze the incidence of ALK mutation.


  Results Top


A total of 379 samples were tested over the entire study period, out of which 26 (6.8%) samples were found to be inadequate for reporting. The main reasons were identified to be, lack of tissue; extensive necrosis; inappropriate fixation; and inappropriate storage. Those “un-interpretable by FISH” were also considered as inadequate for reporting. Finally, out of the 353 reportable samples, 14 [(3.9%] 14/353] tested positive for ALK mutations.

From March 1, 2013, to June 30, 2015, 200 (52.77%) patients were tested by FISH, 17 (8.5%) samples were inadequate for reporting (including uninterpretable by FISH in 7 patients), and 4 patients [(2.19%] 4/183] tested positive for ALK mutations. From July 1, 2015, to March 15, 2017, 179 (47.22%) patients were tested by IHC, 9 (5.02%) samples were inadequate for reporting and 10 patients [(5.88%] 10/170] tested positive for ALK mutations.


  Discussion Top


The global incidence of ALK mutation in NSCLC is 3%–7%[1] as compared to 2.7%–3% in India.[2],[3] However, most of these reported incidences were based on RT-PCR or FISH as the method of detection, which for justified reasons, has evolved over a period of time to make way for IHC as the testing modality.[4],[5] IHC is now the current standard, since its approval in June 2015 by FDA.[6]

This study, which spans over 4 years from March 2013 to March 2017, covered both the detection methods of ALK mutation in their respective time frames. Therefore, allowing a considerable subset of patients (47.22%) to be tested by the current standard for ALK detection. Both, the overall incidence (3.9%) and the incidence in the subset of patients using FISH (2.19%), as found in our study, is at par with any published literature. However, the 5.88% incidence of ALK mutation as detected by IHC is lower than the IHC-based incidences reported worldwide (6.24%–10.66%).[7],[8],[9],[10]


  Conclusion Top


This is the first regional reporting of the incidence of ALK positive NSCLC from the eastern India, and, also one of the earliest reporting based on IHC in a substantial subset of patients. The overall incidence of ALK mutation positive NSCLC in Kolkata is 3.9%. The incidence by IHC is 5.88% and by FISH is 2.19%, in the subset of patients tested by these two modalities respectively. This study was not planned to identify any concordance or statistical differences between the two detection methods, and therefore not reported. The study, though, is limited by its retrospective nature and the lack of demographic, clinical and survival data.

Acknowledgment

I want to thank all my colleagues in different cancer centers in Kolkata who helped me collate this data, but, could not be given authorship due to nonfulfillment of the other technical criteria.

Financial support and sponsorship

All ALK mutation tests were done by Pfizer Ltd., as a part of their Patients Assistance Programme.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, Takada S, Yamashita Y, Ishikawa S, et al. Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer. Nature 2007;448:561-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Desai SS, Shah AS, Prabhash K, Jambhekar NA. A year of anaplastic large cell kinase testing for lung carcinoma: Pathological and technical perspectives. Indian J Cancer 2013;50:80-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Doval D, Prabhash K, Patil S, Chaturvedi H, Goswami C, Vaid A, et al. Clinical and epidemiological study of EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK fusion genes among Indian patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Onco Targets Ther 2015;8:117-23.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.
Accessdata.fda.gov. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drugs Administration; Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. Silver Spring, MD. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf11/p110012a.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Apr 12].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lira ME, Kim TM, Huang D, Deng S, Koh Y, Jang B, et al. Multiplexed gene expression and fusion transcript analysis to detect ALK fusions in lung cancer. J Mol Diagn 2013;15:51-61.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.
Accessdata.fda.gov. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drugs Administration; Ventana ALK Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Assay. Silver Spring, MD. Available from: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_docs/pdf14/P140025b.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Apr 12].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Li Y, Pan Y, Wang R, Sun Y, Hu H, Shen X, et al. ALK-rearranged lung cancer in Chinese: A comprehensive assessment of clinicopathology, IHC, FISH and RT-PCR. PLoS One 2013;8:e69016.  Back to cited text no. 7
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Blackhall FH, Peters S, Bubendorf L, Dafni U, Kerr KM, Hager H, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcomes for patients with ALK-positive resected stage I to III adenocarcinoma: Results from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Project. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:2780-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.
Tantraworasin A, Lertprasertsuke N, Kongkarnka S, Euathrongchit J, Wannasopha Y, Saeteng S. Retrospective study of ALK rearrangement and clinicopathological implications in completely resected non- small cell lung cancer patients in Northern Thailand: Role of screening with D5F3 antibodies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15:3057-63.  Back to cited text no. 9
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Yang P, Kulig K, Boland JM, Erickson-Johnson MR, Oliveira AM, Wampfler J, et al. Worse disease-free survival in never-smokers with ALK+ lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol 2012;7:90-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
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Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
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