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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 58-60

Histopathological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and salivary lactate dehydrogenase: A biochemical study

1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Intern, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Audrey M D'Cruz
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-330X.155629

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Context: Early diagnosis of oral cancer is a priority health objective, in which oral health professionals may play a pivotal role. Detection should lead to less damage from cancer therapy and to a better prognosis. Aims: The aim was to estimate and compare the salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in various histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and normal subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based setting, case-control study. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was undertaken comprising 30 OSCC patients and 30 healthy controls. The OSCC patients were grouped into well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC based on their histological tumor differentiation. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, assayed for LDH levels using a standard kit and measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Statistical Analysis Used: The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Spearman's correlation was used to correlate the histological tumor differentiation with the salivary LDH levels. Results: The mean salivary LDH levels in the control group, well-differentiated OSCC group, moderately differentiated OSCC group, and poorly differentiated OSCC group were 117.33 ± 19.37 IU/L, 355.83 ± 16.73 IU/L, 484.18 ± 25.84 IU/L, and 620.35 ± 18.69 IU/L, respectively. The difference in the mean salivary LDH levels was statistically significant among the various groups (Kruskal-Wallis χ2 = 50.820, P < 0.001). Spearman's correlation showed significant difference between salivary LDH levels and histological differentiation of OSCC (r = -0.689, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The salivary LDH levels were higher in OSCC patients when compared to the healthy controls. The salivary LDH levels were found to be the highest among the poorly differentiated OSCC.

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