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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 237

Urine biomarker for benzene exposure and precancerous chromosome damage among gas station attendants in Bangkok, trend after implementation of declaration of standards for control of air quality


Visiting Professor, Hainan Medical University, China; Adjunct Professor, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Nigeria; Visiting Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia; Professor, Senior Expert, Surinrajabhat University, Surin, Thailand

Date of Web Publication15-Oct-2014

Correspondence Address:
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Visiting Professor, Hainan Medical University, China; Adjunct Professor, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Nigeria; Visiting Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia; Professor, Senior Expert, Surinrajabhat University, Surin, Thailand

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2278-330X.143002

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How to cite this article:
Wiwanitkit V. Urine biomarker for benzene exposure and precancerous chromosome damage among gas station attendants in Bangkok, trend after implementation of declaration of standards for control of air quality. South Asian J Cancer 2014;3:237

How to cite this URL:
Wiwanitkit V. Urine biomarker for benzene exposure and precancerous chromosome damage among gas station attendants in Bangkok, trend after implementation of declaration of standards for control of air quality. South Asian J Cancer [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 21];3:237. Available from: http://journal.sajc.org/text.asp?2014/3/4/237/143002

Dear Editor,

The benzene is an important volatile hydrocarbon, which is the present environmental problem. Benzene is considered toxic and carcinogenic. [1] It is accepted that many occupations are at risk to get high benzene exposure and take risk for cancer development. [1] Of several occupations, gas station attendant is the group with an extremely high risk. [2] The precancerous chromosomal damage risk of these workers is significantly higher than controls. [3] To manage the problem, it is recommended that closed monitoring of the risk workers is needed. Of several techniques, the use of standard urine biomarker, trans, trans-muconic acid is acceptable. [4] In addition to this, the legal implementation of standards for control of air quality is needed. In Thailand, the problem of benzene can also be seen. The declaration of standards for control of air quality was proposed by Thai National Environment Board in 2006. According to the standard, the benzene is controlled to be below 1.7 μg/m 3 . Here, the author discusses on the experience from Thailand on following up a group of gas station attendants in Pathumwan District Bangkok in a 10-year period, 5 years before [5] and 5 year after [3] implementation of the standard for control of air quality. In 2001 and 2011, the ratio of urine biomarker average level between gas station attendants and controls are equal to 33.3 and 2.3, respectively. Based on this observation, it can imply that the ratio decreased 14.4 times within 10 years, under the condition of the standards for control of air quality. Based on the observation on the risk for chromosomal damage that doubled the urine biomarker corresponding to 1.3 times, increased the risk of precancerous chromosomal damage risk. The estimated decreased precancerous damage risk is equal to 18.72 times after implementation of the standards. This observation can guarantee that the legal method for control of benzene in atmosphere is a good mean to reduce the risk of cancer among the workers.

 
  References Top

1.
Huff J. Benzene-induced cancers: Abridged history and occupational health impact. Int J Occup Environ Health 2007;13:213-21.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Wiwanitkit V. Classification of risk occupation for benzene exposure by urine trans, trans-munconic acid level. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006;7:149-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Tunsaringkarn T, Suwansaksri J, Soogarun S, Siriwong W, Rungsiyothin A, Zapuang K, et al. Genotoxic monitoring and benzene exposure assessment of gasoline station workers in metropolitan Bangkok: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:223-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wiwanitkit V, Suwansaksri J, Nasuan P. Feasibility of urinary trans-, trans-muconic acid determination using high performance liquid chromatography for biological monitoring of benzene exposure. J Med Assoc Thai 2001;84:S263-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Wiwanitkit V, Suwansaksri J, Nasuan P. Urine trans, trans-muconic acid as a biomarker for benzene exposure in gas station attendants in Bangkok, Thailand. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2001;31:399-401.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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